GMEC 19 Pupil Challenge Day

Yesterday was the GMEC19 Pupil Challenge Day at Manchester University. This was the culmination of all the engineering tasks that schools have been working on over the past couple of months. Nobody except the event organisers knew what to expect. What were going to be our final challenges? What categories would they fall into? Would we be prepared?

These were the questions going through the minds of our six Year 5 pupils as they travelled on the train to Piccadilly station. Their excitement was palpable – it’s just a shame that we had to leave the rest of the class behind.

Fortunately, at Rode Heath, we make sure that every child has the opportunity to engage with engineering on a regular basis. We not only hold termly whole school Engineering Days and half-term Big Tinkers, but teachers actively plan engineering into their every day curriculum.

 

On arrival at Manchester University, we were led into the Great Hall where a sea of animated children met our eyes. There were some familiar faces, but many of the participants were new to the process – great news for the development of engineering in the primary sector.

In fact, there were so many schools present, that following an introduction on recycling plastic by Professor Lin Li, half of us trooped to the floor below to await our instructions.

Imagine & Plan

The first task was to design a solution for the problem of air pollution. It was amazing to see the creativity and diversity of ideas emerging.

Rode Heath pupils chose to go down the safety route, with a Fitbit type watch which alerted its wearer, via Bluetooth, when the risk of air pollution was high. As well as the band vibrating, the product included a badge which changed from green to amber to red, depending on the level of air pollution in the area. Once alerted, the person could then put on a face mask to protect themselves from the fumes. The badge was designed to warn other people of the dangers.

They chose a very apt name – Air Alert – which they changed to Awair Alert (deliberately misspelled) to fit in with their presentation.

Considering the children only had 30 minutes to come up with an idea; sketch and label their concept and create a presentation, there were some magnificent contributions in the room, including our own Rode Heath offering which you can see below:

Create & Improve

We knew this would have something to do with plastic, as we had been asked to bring a bag full; however the theme of the creation was only revealed in the afternoon – build a product to help young people in school feel less lonely.

This was something that we had been looking at in our small Year 5 group and had thought about creating an App, which would give helpful hints to children experiencing loneliness. Indeed, intrepid Isaac had even developed some prototype screens using Scratch.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Unfortunately, this didn’t particularly help with ideas for the plastic challenge and it took a number of suggestions from making homes to attract hedgehogs into the garden to manufacturing bird feeders or plant bottle gardens, before a robot pet was finally settled upon.

Once a design had been formulated, the children set about collecting suitable components for the build. Everyone had responded very enthusiastically to the call for recycled plastic and there was a veritable mountain to choose from. In addition, the University had provided various electronic equipment, including light bulbs, batteries, motors and wires – and fixing materials, all of which the Year 5s made good use of.

Time was very short and it was touch and go as to whether we would even finish. There was certainly a great deal of trouble trying to fix all the electronics onto the bottle – the masking tape was definitely not very cooperative. We probably should have opted for the glue gun. Anyway, after a massive final push, which involved white tack, elastic bands and a good deal of perseverance – the robot pet was born:

There were some amazing and innovative ideas throughout the room. It was wonderful to see children so animated and creative. I hope that schools around the country have a go at these challenges too. I can’t wait to see children’s work uploaded onto social media. Who knows what might be invented?

If you haven’t already done so, visit the GMEC19 website and download the Challenge resources: https://seerih-innovations.org/tinkering4learning/project/the-greater-manchester-engineering-challenge/

Make sure your school doesn’t miss out on this exciting opportunity!

 

 

Preparing for GMEC19

I thought I would share with you the work we have been doing in Year 5 to prepare for this year’s Greater Manchester Engineering Challenge. The format has changed from last year and now focuses more on developing skills through engaging children in the Engineering Design Process and introducing Engineering Habits of Mind – the characteristics that engineers use in their day to day jobs.

The theme is ‘Engineering Improves Lives’ and there are five key topics:

  • plastics
  • air pollution
  • homelessness
  • dementia
  • loneliness

These have been specifically chosen as they appear to be subjects which  are more likely to engage girls in engineering, as they include a social responsibility aspect.

Any school can take part by signing up at the following link: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSe-yC0iHcGRpWPUPELpKuosY8hUKK5X2jIIrzNqGc3dxNy62g/viewform

A series of excellent resources are available to download from the website: https://seerih-innovations.org/tinkering4learning/project/the-greater-manchester-engineering-challenge/

A couple of weeks ago I tried out the Imagine & Plan session with our Year 5s at Rode Heath. To keep things simple, I just focused on the topic of Homelessness. After a brief discussion around the topic the children were given a picture of a homeless person and asked to think about the problems they might face .

There was a real buzz around the room with some very interesting ideas being aired amongst the groups. I was particularly struck by the thought that getting to sleep would be quite difficult as there would be a lot of noise and light from nearby traffic – something I had not thought of.

The children were then asked to pick some of the problems and try and come up with potential products that might solve them.

Again, the children were extremely animated and generated some interesting ideas. There was such an eagerness to share that we ran out of time and had to organise another session for the following week.

This actually worked out extremely well, as it transpired that Charlotte’s mother worked with the homeless in Stoke so we quickly arranged for her to come in and talk to us about her role. It is always worth asking if parents have relevant knowledge they can share. In my experience they are generally very willing to come into school and talk to children. It certainly adds weight to your lesson and, in Mrs Millns’ case, she was able to use her experience to judge and provide valuable feedback on the children’s ideas.

The next step was for the children to choose their best idea and then design a product around it. This involved not only visualising the solution but coming up with a presentation to promote the product to Mrs Millns and the rest of the class.

Isaac – super enthusiastic as ever – had brought in a prototype of his design from the previous week:

Liliana had also worked on a design at home:

 

As a final exercise – in order to try and make it easier to choose children to take to the event in Manchester and to have a record for the Log Books  – I set them some homework. They were to refine their ideas on a planning sheet.

Here are a few examples:

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

 

Who to choose?

 

 

 

Greater Manchester Engineering Challenge (GMEC19)

Learning should always be about having fun. If children are engaged in their lessons, then they are much more likely to remember what they are being taught. A great way to embed learning is to provide children with hands-on activities – to challenge them to solve a problem by visualising, designing and making something – which is why, at Rode Heath, we base our lessons around Engineering Habits of Mind (EHOM).

And, with OFSTED encouraging schools to offer a ‘broad, rich and deep’ curriculum, now is an ideal time to take up the engineering mantle. An excellent way of doing this would be to take part in this year’s Greater Manchester Engineering Challenge (GMEC19).

Yesterday saw the launch of the third Greater Manchester Engineering Challenge (GMEC19) – sponsored by the IET and IMechE – with an immersion event for teachers across the Greater Manchester area. This is something that Rode Heath has been involved with since its inception in 2017 – first with the excellent Robot Orchestra and last year with the Marble Run Challenge. Indeed, it is Rode Heath’s engagement with the Robot Orchestra that started us on our amazing engineering journey.

Each year, I have personally become more involved in the projects and this year I was asked to develop and lead two of the sessions with Ainsley Moseley from Bowker Vale Primary.

So, what is GMEC19?

GMEC19 is open to all primary schools. Designed and run by the University of Manchester’s Science and Engineering Education Research Innovation Hub (SEERIH), it is aimed at pupils between the ages of 7 and 13, so KS3 pupils can take part too. This year the key message is ‘Engineering Improves Lives’ and comprises a series of activities focusing around five themes: air pollution, plastic, homelessness, dementia and loneliness. These topics have been specifically chosen as they are issues which impact society and the environment. More significantly, research indicates that engaging in engineering activities which involve social responsibility is a way of encouraging girls into the discipline.

Activities are all based around the Engineering Design Process and encourage children to use the six Engineering Habits of Mind as a way of working.

https://www.eie.org/overview/engineering-design-process

 

 

 

 

 

Register your school now

If you are interested in motivating your pupils and developing a more creative, hands-on curriculum in your school, then you should definitely consider registering for this event:

https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSe-yC0iHcGRpWPUPELpKuosY8hUKK5X2jIIrzNqGc3dxNy62g/viewform

It’s completely free, there are simple lesson plans to follow and the impact on your pupils will be hugely positive.

For an overview of GMEC19 you can follow this link to the Intro Film:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bDTRTnniIzQ

There will be an additional briefing video launched on Tuesday 5th February.

The Immersion Day

The day kicked off with the excellent Lea Jagendorf from Fixperts (http://fixing.education/fixperts) who challenged the teachers to use their imagination and skills to create ingenious solutions for everyday problems that real people face.

These problems included:

  • Trying to slice a bagel with one arm
  • Trying to button up a shirt with arthritic hands
  • Trying to eat when you can’t bend your arm
  • Trying to turn the pages of a newspaper without fingers

To simulate the problem, teachers were given cardboard sleeves; rubber gloves with lolly sticks in the finger and knee bandages placed over a folded arm.

The resulting ideas for products were amazing.

All these activities can be tried out in your classroom. The equipment needed is minimal and very easy to acquire.

Imagine & Plan

The next session focused on the first two stages of the Engineering Design Process. Teachers were given a set of photographs representing Homelessness, Dementia and Loneliness and asked to think about the problems that people suffering from these issues faced.

They were then tasked with choosing one of the problems to develop a product for. The results were very inventive, and each group presented a completely different idea.

Create & Improve

The final session was entitled ‘Perch on Plastic’ and focused on the ever-growing plastic problem. Teachers were required to take recycled plastic and repurpose it into a piece of furniture that they could perch on for at least 30 seconds. Again, the results were amazing.

Perhaps the most pleasing part of the day was watching the faces of the teachers as they engaged with each activity. They were definitely having fun. And a special thanks must go to all the Siemens engineers who attended the event and supported the teachers in their endeavours.

The task now is for the teachers to try out these activities with their own classes. This to prepare children for the final GMEC Challenge on 19th March.

Anyone can take part in this exciting project. For more details follow this link:

https://seerih-innovations.org/tinkering4learning/project/the-greater-manchester-engineering-challenge/

Lesson plans and resources for the Imagine & Plan and Create & Improve activities can be accessed on the GMEC website.

 

 

Sharing with Schools

Just over two years ago we launched our Think Like an Engineer project with a special event led by Professor Danielle George – highlights from which can be found on the Home page.

The aim of our project was to introduce Engineering Habits of Mind into our curriculum thereby encouraging children to adopt a creative problem-solving approach to their learning.

Step by Step

We did this gradually at first . . .

We gave each child an Engineering Log book into which we asked them to record their ideas, designs and reflections – just like real engineers. Teachers were encouraged to talk about Engineering Habits of Mind wherever possible within their lessons, so that the language became familiar to the children.

To keep the momentum going, we held regular whole school Engineering Days where we invited parents and engineers to work alongside their children. Our most recent event involved the RAF who came to help us make and launch gliders, which you can read about in last month’s blog.

Every half-term, we introduced what we call a Big Tinker, where classes across the school focused on an engineering task for the morning or afternoon. There are plenty of ideas for one off activities to be found now on the Internet.

We then started to fit engineering into our other lessons, such as Literacy, Science, History and Maths. KS1 teachers particularly, chose class texts that lent themselves to engineering activities.

Although measuring the quantifiable impact of our project has been difficult, we would argue that there have been a number of notable outcomes:

  • Resilience has increased significantly across the school. Children try noticeably harder in tests and leave fewer questions unanswered. They are much more prepared to ‘have a go’, as failure is just considered as a step on the way towards a successful result.
  • Communication skills have developed. Our children are articulate and able to talk to adults fluently, using precise language.
  • Girls’ confidence has been boosted. They now have a greater belief that they can do anything the boys can do.

Where to begin?

Starting the journey is certainly not easy. Maths and English results will always be a main priority; however, with Ofsted now favouring a ‘broad, rich and deep’ curriculum this may be the ideal time to introduce Engineering into schools. The question is: Where to begin, when teachers are already stretched to the limits?

Thanks to Cheshire East Highways our Log books have been made available to selected schools in Cheshire East. And, last week we held a major event to both showcase the work we have been doing at Rode Heath and launch our new Cross Curricular Civil Engineering resource, that has been sponsored by The ERA Foundation

This is a series of 12 double-sided A4 cards designed to support teachers on their engineering journey, by providing ready-made activities which will integrate into the existing curriculum. The aim is for teachers to use them as a starting point, enabling initial pieces of work to be recorded into the Engineering Log books.

Twilight Launch

On Thursday 6th December, we were delighted to welcome 35 teachers, representing 14 local schools to our Twilight Event, as well as 6 Cheshire East Highways engineers – all interested in helping to promote our project.

After a short introduction, the teachers were invited to talk to our pupils, who were demonstrating a selection of the activities that they had been involved in – some of which were taken directly from the new curriculum pack.

There were a number of zones around the school to investigate: Engineering Days, Big Tinkers, Technology Zone, Literacy Zone & Cross-curricular Zone.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

The children communicated brilliantly, explaining their activities articulately and with great confidence. Indeed, we had been overwhelmed by number of them wanting to stay behind after school to share. Overall, the evening was a huge success, with the visiting teachers very impressed by what they had seen, and hopefully inspired to start the process themselves.

Thank you to all the children, Rode Heath staff and Cheshire East Highways engineers who made the event possible.

 

Engineering with RAF Cosford

Some people think that we should focus our attention on teaching children how to use computers to visualise and imagine. After all, this is what they are going to be using in the real world. And, indeed there is a place for this, but perhaps not in primary where we should be concentrating on activities that involve hands-on making.

Before attempting to design on a flat screen, children need to recognise how things work. They need to deal with the concrete, rather than the abstract. They need to have practical experience of touching different materials; appreciating what they feel like; understanding what it is like to work with wood as opposed to cardboard. We need to teach them how to cut and stick things together. It is very difficult to imagine friction on a computer – you have to feel it for yourself.

In a recent BBC News article, Roger Kneebone (yes really!), professor of surgical education at Imperial College, London, reported that he has seen a decline in the manual dexterity of students over the past decade – which he says is a problem for surgeons, who need craftsmanship as well as academic knowledge.

He has found that that his students have spent so much time in front of screens and so little time using their hands that they have lost their ability to stitch or sew up patients.

Focusing on a creative curriculum

At Rode Heath we believe in offering a much more rounded education, with a focus on creativity and problem solving – a curriculum which involves our pupils learning to use their hands as well as their brains. That’s why every term we hold a whole school Engineering Day where we invite parents and engineers to take part in a building project, working alongside their children. This term the theme was flight and we invited members of RAF Cosford to help us construct and launch gliders to prepare us for this year’s ‘Fly to the Line’ competition, run by the RAF Cosford Museum & The Learning Partnership.

We were very lucky to persuade two Chief Technicians, Lee Betts and Leon Towns from 238 Squadron, to visit the school and teach the children about the theory of flight, whilst giving tips on how to balance and improve their gliders.

The morning in KS2 was spent making and testing paper planes, whilst parent helpers cut out the glider templates. As there were 40 gliders to be made in all, this was no mean task.

It did however work out well, as the polystyrene proved quite challenging and it was too much of a risk for the children use the craft knives.

Indeed as the templates were fixed, the children’s learning came from assembling and balancing of the planes. This was achieved using a mixture of Blu-tack and pennies – a 2p coin fixed to the nose proved ideal.

Testing and Improving

It was then outside to test and modify. It soon became clear that the wings needed to be fixed to the fuselage in some way; otherwise they quickly lost their alignment and were in danger of becoming crushed due to the force of the landings. This was quickly remedied with a few strategically placed pieces of masking tape.

Year 3 decorated their gliders with the RAF logo and tested them out in the classroom with Mr Randall’s special loom band launcher.

It looks pretty impressive in slow motion . . . .

Competition time

After lunch it was time for the gliders to be launched in the hall. All the teams were very excited – whose glider would travel the furthest? To make the competition fair, all the gliders were launched from the same piece of equipment – a sophisticated gutter-based launcher conceived and built by Mrs Wiskow’s husband, Dorian.

RAF Cosford have been so impressed by its engineering design – particularly the fact that you can launch the gliders over and over again at the same force, thereby making the competition fairer and more scientific – they have commissioned five to be built for the Museum.

During the launch, the gliders flew surprisingly well – some straighter than others, it has to be said. The less successful flights tended to have a problem with their balance point – not enough weight in the nose so they tipped up and landed on the tail. This was particularly true of some of the Year 3 gliders. In securing the tail to the fuselage, they had used a considerable amount of hot glue, which had a huge impact on the weight of the glider, making it very tail heavy. Even a large amount of added Blu-tack on the nose was often not enough to balance them.

In the end, it was the Y6 girls who triumphed with their Flying Duchess achieving a distance of over 12 metres. Well done girls.

KS1 and Foundation activities

So what was happening lower down the school? After all, this was billed as a whole school Engineering Day. Well our younger pupils did not disappoint with the engineering skills. Although they were not involved in building the polystyrene gliders, they were certainly learning about how things fly.

In Year 2, Miss Moss started the day teaching the children about balancing points with her robots. The challenge was to balance them on a point – such as a finger, or a piece of string.

This was closely followed by making parachutes to deliver a package of chocolates – all linked in with their class text, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory – aligned with our aim of embedding Engineering Habits of Mind across the curriculum at Rode Heath. There was lots of investigating going on – what would be the impact of using one string or more? Would the parachute even open? Which parachute would be the slowest to glide to the ground?

Super Heroes in Year 1

Year 1 chose to link their activities with their topic of Super Heroes. They have been reading Supertato and this presented an excellent opportunity to make Super Hero gliders – of course.

But perhaps the overall prize should go to Miss Scott – who actually came dressed as a plane. Who could ask for anything more?

A massive ‘Thank You’ to all the parents and visitors who made this event so special.
Can’t wait for the spring term and our next Engineering Day . . .

Linking Engineering with History

This first half-term of the new academic year has flown by, giving us little time to pause for breath. So what have we achieved at Rode Heath in terms of our engineering project? With the curriculum being increasingly squeezed – an extra half hour of PE a day, time needed for well being and diversity – what we really need is one of Hermione’s ‘Time Turners’ in order to fit everything in. Failing that, we must try and be more cross-curricular. Fortunately, there are still many opportunities to do this.

In Year 4, we have been studying the Romans, who are well-known for their remarkable feats of engineering, such as roads, bridges, tunnels and aqueducts. Perhaps one of the most significant achievements was the vast network of roads that they built – some of which you can still see today, over 2,000 years later. We decided to find out how the Romans managed to make these roads so straight.

We discovered that they used a device called a ‘groma’ – a simple cross of wood with arms of equal length. Each arm had a plumb line suspended from the end of it, which was equal in length to the other three plumb lines. This seemed easy enough to make, so we had a go. There were a few examples on the Internet, some made with lollipop sticks, but these proved very hard to fix together without splitting, so in the end we opted for strips of Greyboard, which seemed to work well, some string and a cardboard tube. The children were then left to decide what to use to weight their string so that it kept straight.

Most groups chose paperclips. Those who used Blu tack quickly discovered that the strings tended to stick together when they moved, which wasn’t ideal. The length of string was also found to be significant – too long and the lines were easily tangled.

Having made our gromas, the next step was to try them out on the school playing field. How successful would they be at making a straight line? The idea was to point one of the cardboard arms in the direction of where the children wanted the theoretical road to go and then send someone with a pole about 10 metres in that direction. Related image

The key was to line up the pole with the two strings and the cardboard tube. This process was then repeated until we had about three pole in a row.

In hindsight it would probably have been easier to line up the strings if we had used a piece of dowel instead of the cardboard tube, as these were rather wide and obscured the string somewhat. The exercise was deemed to be a great success though and the children gained a good understanding of how the Romans made their roads straight.

And, of course, the children were able to write about their experiences in their Engineering Log Books.

Making a Roman Road

This activity naturally led to the children wanting to make their own mini roads, which we did – in shoe boxes. Collecting the materials was surprisingly easy, as one of our parents was having some building work done, so there was a plentiful supply of sand, gravel and various sizes of stone – some of which were actually much larger than the shoe box for which they were intended!

Ideas of how the roads were in fact layered seemed to vary, so we just picked one which best suited the materials to hand. This isn’t something that I have ever attempted before and there are definitely things that I would do differently next time. It did however present opportunities to bring in a number of areas of the curriculum, particularly maths, as using digital scales, we were able to compare the different volume of gravel, stones and sand of the same weight.

Actually layering the different materials proved much more difficult that we anticipated. The aim was to clearly display each layer through a plastic window constructed at the end of the shoe box. However, the sand tended to mix in with everything. We decided that rather than trying to fill the whole box, it would be better just to focus on constructing the layers at one end.

This was an improved version, as a result of what we learned during the process.

The children had great fun and again will probably remember more about how the roads were built than if they had just researched the topic on the Internet or in books. Here are the children’s constructions.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

This exercise lent itself to a set of instructions. which were then presented in either a Word, Publisher or PowerPoint format – Literacy and Computing connections.

Reflecting on learning

It is very important at the end of these sessions to give the children time to reflect on their experiences. We always encourage them to think about and record their successes and failures: what aspects went particularly well; what difficulties did they face and how might they change their approach for next time? This can be quite daunting at first, but improves with practice.

So, what is next on the agenda? Making concrete of course – the Romans are supposed to have invented that too. Clever chaps those Romans . . .

 

Creating patterns with your voice

When you have been teaching the topic of ‘Sound’ for more years than you care to remember, it’s great to come across something new that you haven’t tried before. That’s what happened recently, as I was trawling through the Internet – I happened upon something called a ‘tonoscope’.

Demonstrating vibrations can sometimes be rather dull. There are the old favourites, of course – tuning forks in water; rice on a drum; striking a ruler on the desk; feeling your voice box as you speak – all of which do the job but are not particularly exciting.

A tonoscope on the other hand, generates a bit of magic. It is an acoustic device that enables you to create intricate patterns by just using the sound of your voice.

It is actually quite easy to make. You just need a length of 4” PVC drainpipe (which you will need to cut to an appropriate size) and an angled elbow piece – both of which I found in B&Q.

img_7574.jpg

Below is a link to the instructional video I followed:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jr6Xsatup4Y

The most challenging part was trying to stretch the balloon over the upright end of the elbow piece. This proved very difficult – even with two of us trying – and we split a couple of balloons straight away.

Time for some creative thinking. Fortunately, because we are now used to ‘thinking like engineers’, we have become quite resilient and adept at problem solving. The issue was trying to keep the balloon on the pipe once we had stretched it across. Before we had time to put an elastic band around, one side invariably popped off – very frustrating.

It was Mrs Yates, the Year 4&5 TA, who came up with the solution. Before attempting to attach the balloon, she fixed a strip of double-sided tape around the edge of the pipe. Brilliant! It worked first time. The balloon stuck to the tape and allowed time for the elastic bands to be placed around the edge.

The results were not disappointing. We poured some salt onto the surface of the balloon and encouraged the children to speak into the tube. It was a great way to make sound waves visible.

 

What was more impressive was the questions that the children were asking:

  • What happens if you put the tonoscope on different surfaces? Will the sound change?
  • What is the difference in pattern between high and low sounds?
  • How loud do we have to shout to bounce the salt off the balloon?
  • Will it work with sugar or sand?
  • Will too much salt stop the balloon from vibrating?

Sometimes when you try out an idea, it falls flat. Not this one. It was really good fun. The children even asked if they could take it into assembly to show the rest of the school.

Sharing our engineering vision

We are nearly three weeks into the Autumn term, and it seems as though we have never been away. Already, at Rode Heath, we are thinking about the major engineering activities that are going to take place over the next three terms.

Looking back over last year, it is almost becoming possible to devise an engineering curriculum, based on the work that we have completed in each year group. Indeed, at the end of July, we put together a selection of examples from Year 1 through to Year 6 to create an exemplar Engineering Log book to share our vision.

A pdf of the book is available below. It is a testament to our two year journey, of which we are very proud, and has encouraged us to look forward to the future of our project.

Complete scanned Log Book

 

Engineering Project Round-Up and Review

It has now been two academic years since we embarked upon our Think Like an Engineer project, so what have we discovered along the way? It certainly hasn’t been an easy journey and teachers have had to learn new skills and fit the occasional Big Tinker and Engineering Day into their working week – so has it been worth the effort? Certainly, if you talk to the children, you would get a resounding ‘Yes’. This may not be enough though to encourage schools to take up the Engineering Habit of Mind (EHoM) mantle.

What we really need to do now at Rode Heath, is establish a clear way of monitoring the impact that this project is having. There is certainly plenty of anecdotal evidence. Teachers have reported that they have noticed a marked improvement in resilience, particularly during the recent SATs tests. Children who have previously had a tendency to give up when faced with a problem have persevered and kept going. Indeed, our Year 6 SATs results this year have been excellent.

Another area of noticeable improvement is in the confidence with which our children address audiences, including adults. They are both articulate and knowledgeable, and always keen to present their ideas. This year’s Year 6 Public Speaking Contest winner, Gabrielle Goodwin, was noticeably quiet at beginning of Year 4 and preferred to stay in the background, rather than push herself forward. What a change over two years! I am convinced that being immersed in our various engineering activities and sharing her ideas with others, has effected this change.

Indeed, visitors to our school invariably comment on the knowledge that the children show, particularly the younger pupils in KS1. STEM ambassadors from BAE Systems, were recently astounded by the Year 1s suggestions for crossing a river, which ranged from building a zip wire to using a submarine.

Engineering in Reception

Although recording in the Log Books does not start until Year 1, the Reception children engage in all our engineering activities, and many of their own. This year, they have been studying the well known picture book – The Lighthouse Keeper’s Lunch – which lends itself to many opportunities for Creative Problem Solving. One of which, is how to prevent the seagulls from stealing the delicious lunch that Mrs Grinling sends her husband every day.

The children has already investigated ropes and pulleys to see how the lunch was transported. There next task was to design a seagull catcher.

To do this, they had to first draw their designs and then try them out. As you will see from the examples below, they had a great time doing it.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

So what do the children think?

At the end of this academic year, we sent out a questionnaire to the children in both KS1 and KS2, to try and get a measure of both their understanding of EHoM and their view of the project so far. Below is a copy of the KS2 survey, adapted from an idea developed by Bohunt School, in Liphook, Hampshire.

Engineering Evaluation

Two Y5 pupils, Daniel Smallwood and Samuel Pickering, asked if they could analyse the data as part of one of their maths lessons. They systematically went through each questionnaire (over 120 of them!), tallying the results and produced a series of graphs in Excel and a summary of their findings, which I have copied below.

Evaluation of Engineering in KS2 by Daniel Smallwood and Sam Pickering

Over the course of this amazing engineering project, children in KS2 have shown a clear improvement in Engineering Habits of Mind. These habits (EHoM) consist of systems thinking, improving, visualising, creative problem solving, problem finding and adapting.

The following findings are a result of our analysis of a questionnaire given out by Mrs Wiskow at the end of the school year.

In Year 3, the habit which was improved on the most was Systems Thinking, with 18% of the class feeling they had improved in this area the most. This area was improved upon the most because it is the most unique to engineering, so many of the children had never heard of it, never mind put it into practice.

In Year 4, the habit of mind improved upon the most was Visualising, with again 18% of the class feeling that they had improved in that are the most. During our research we concluded that this was probably to do with the fact that children often need to picture a design in engineering, and the practice has improved this area drastically.

In Year 5, the area improved upon the most is Problem Finding, with 22% of the class feeling this was the area that children had improved in. It is likely this is because this class go for ambitious designs at first – particularly with the 3D printing – and then fail and have to use this habit if mind to make their designs work.

In Year 6, the class showed that they improved on Improving the most, 21% saying that they improved that greatly. This was probably because improving is essential if you are to be a successful engineering, making it important to learn.

Overall KS2 improved on Systems Thinking and Improving the most, with 18% of children thinking that they improved the most for both habits.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Some of the children’s responses to the question of  impact on learning make interesting reading:

“It makes you question what you’re doing and why you’re doing it.”
“It’s made me more resilient, and more creative with my ideas.”
“It has inspired me to do new things and work harder.”
“It has made me more excited about learning.”
“It’s made me more comfortable with messing up in class.”
“It makes me think more deeply about questions, especially in maths.”
“It has made me look more closely at things to improve them.”
“I feel that it has made me realise that mistakes are important for learning.”

This September a number of schools in Cheshire East are taking on the Engineering Log books. We hope that the success that we are continuing to enjoy at Rode Heath will spur them on their journey.

Making Science Real

Trying to fit every subject into the already overcrowded curriculum is getting increasingly difficult. Greater depth projects which span multiple areas of learning are often the answer. As well as being more satisfying and motivating for the children (and teachers), they can pick up many maths, literacy and other curriculum objectives on the way, whilst being much more purposeful and relevant to real-life. 

When I asked my Year 4s at the end of the summer term which science activity they had enjoyed the most, the response was almost unanimous: our toothpaste project. The reason? Because it was hands-on, exciting and something that they could easily relate to.

Teeth is one of the topics of study in Year 4 science, but I didn’t want to make 26 sets out of playdough – partly because I wasn’t sure that I would do a good job – so I turned to the excellent CIEC resources as a starting point – http://www.ciec.org.uk/. Just in case you are not already familiar with these, the Centre for Industry Education Collaboration (CIEC) provides a range of curriculum-linked teaching resources for the teaching and learning of the science curriculum – one of which is entitled ‘Health Drinks and Tasty Toothpaste’.

Observation over time

We started off by testing the impact that different drinks have on our teeth by immersing boiled eggs in a variety of liquids: orange juice, water, coke, milk and coffee. Coffee was chosen by the Year 4s as they wanted to know whether it would stain the egg shell.

We started this investigation on Monday 18th June, which meant it fitted in well with our Great Science Share for Schools event on the following day. Year 4 children were able to take their eggs into the hall to share with pupils and adults from the visiting schools. They created a prediction table which they invited people to fill in – not surprisingly the coke was voted the liquid that would have the most harmful effect.

Over the course of the next week we observed the eggs carefully and recorded any changes. Not unexpectedly, the water had no effect. We were however surprised that the orange juice appeared to have had the worst effect. Coffee had stained the eggshell, as we had anticipated. When the children investigated orange juice, they found out that it had a pH of 4.2, which meant that it was quite acidic.

On reflection, it would have been better to peel the eggs and just leave the shells in the liquid, which would have made them easier to handle. The CIEC resource just suggests using dilutions of vinegar; however, the children wanted to use real drinks.

Linking with history

Everyone agreed that it was important to regularly brush your teeth to remove any sugars that could cause decay. This led onto a piece of research which was set for homework to investigate the history of teeth cleaning.

Some very interesting facts were discovered: –

Inventing our own engineering solutions

As I am always very keen to incorporate an engineering element into our projects, I asked the children, for homework, to continue the timeline by imagining how people would clean their teeth 500 years from now – in 2518. I was not disappointed, as they came up with some really original ideas.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Next step in class was to test different brands of toothpaste to see how effective they were in removing permanent marker pen off a white tile (scratchiness test).

The children also tested for thickness by trying to shake a blob of toothpaste off the toothbrush. This caused much hilarity and a few accidents on the carpet where the aim had not been quite as accurate as it might.

Arm & Hammer appeared to be the best at removing the pen.
Arm & Hammer also took the most amount of shakes to drop off the toothbrush.

Making our own toothpaste

Of course what all the children had been waiting for was the opportunity to make their own toothpaste. We used the recipe from the CIEC resource adding peppermint essence for flavouring and various food colouring. The key to success was to obtain just the right thickness.

Isaac and Mason added real strawberries to their mixture. Not very practical as the mixture would soon go off, but an interesting idea.

Once the toothpaste was made then it was time for the scratch and shake testing. All of the groups declared that their own brand of toothpaste was much more successful than the real thing.

Linking with maths and literacy

There was a great opportunity now to develop other cross-curricular links, as we decided to think about packaging and marketing our various toothpastes. In maths, we opened up the toothpaste boxes to determine the net we would need to make our own containers. We also looked at the information that was included on each side to make sure that our versions matched.

Next came the development of a name for our toothpaste and associated logo. In Literacy, we examined existing brands and analysed why the names might have been chosen. We decided that it was important that the name reflected the benefits of the product.  There were some thoughtful ideas, ranging from Brush-up through to AquaMint and Magic Shimmer.

One of the packaging designs

The children were certainly very proud of their efforts and keen to promote their products. We were quickly approaching the end of term, so after some initial research into existing toothpaste advertising, I gave each group an iPad and tasked them with using what they had discovered to produce their own TV ads. Considering the searing heat and very limited time frame, I think that their first takes were very commendable (if somewhat over enthusiastic in some cases :))

Here are just a few examples for you to enjoy:

Taking the learning home

Perhaps the most rewarding aspect of the project for me, as a teacher, was when one of my pupils asked to show me a tube of toothpaste that her mum had given her which she thought would be of interest. Iona had heard me talk about Biomimicry – engineers taking ideas from nature – as we had looked at examples earlier in the year and she thought that this product might have links.

She was right. This toothpaste is special because it uses something called ‘bioactive glass’ which contains Calcium, Phosphate and Fluoride. When encountering acid on teeth caused by bacteria metabolising sugars, the glass dissolves quickly raising the pH and releasing calcium phosphate and fluoride ions to minimise damage to the enamel.

Obviously, the glass particles are very tiny, so they do not scratch the teeth. Although this was a very complex subject, it led to a great discussion about how glass is made and questions as to why sand couldn’t be used in toothpaste in the same way. They eventually decided that sand particles would be too big and they would discolour the toothpaste  – quite remarkable I thought for 8 and 9-year olds.

If I return to this topic next year, which I am sure that I will, I would really like the opportunity to take the children to a toothpaste factory. If anyone knows of a suitable venue in the UK – preferably in the North West – please let me know.